From File to Knife (with Simple Tools)

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In this step you’ll minimize out the knife profile with a hacksaw and refine the form with a file.

Marking out the knife sample

Print and minimize out my knife sample or minimize out your individual design.
Then hint the sample onto the annealed file (workpiece) with a scriber or everlasting marker (I used a white pencil, which rapidly light as a result of the usage of lubricating oil).

It’s laborious to precisely mark out the knife sample on the grooved floor of a file.
I ended up utilizing a caliper and a separate knife sample, which I in contrast the workpiece to as I progressed.

Cutting out the tough form

Secure the workpiece right into a vice in such a means you can make a vertical minimize and that the minimize is as near the vice as doable to scale back vibration.

For sawing materials with a thickness of eight mm or much less, a blade with 32 tooth per inch is really useful.
A minimal of three tooth ought to be engaged within the materials always to stop tooth breakage.
Install the blade on the hacksaw body with the tooth pointing away from you.
Tension the blade sufficiently to make sure straight cuts.

Don’t begin a minimize on a pointy edge, or else lower than three tooth will probably be engaged within the materials.
When sawing, apply a bit of little bit of oil to the blade to scale back friction.
Use lengthy, regular strokes and solely apply stress on the ahead, chopping stroke.

Remove as a lot materials per minimize as doable.
If the minimize is wandering away from the place you deliberate to chop, flip the body gently in an effort to twist the blade into the appropriate chopping path.
If it’s essential begin a minimize on an angle (with respect to the fabric), first make a shallow perpendicular minimize that may maintain the noticed into place when sawing on an angle.

Refining the form

In this step you may first use a cross-filing method to take away essentially the most materials and straighten the considerably wavy edges made by the hacksaw.
Then you may use a draw-filing method to scrub up the tough floor and flatten the marginally rounded edges produced by cross-filing.

Secure the workpiece right into a vice in such a means you can file in a horizontal aircraft more often than not.

Cross-filing (straight-filing):

Use a big coarse (bastard, double minimize) flat file.
Finer recordsdata may also be used, however take away materials much less rapidly.
When submitting, you possibly can often really feel whether or not you are utilizing the appropriate file and the appropriate method.

Grasp the deal with in a single hand and the tip of the file within the different, so to apply downward stress.
Place the file diagonally on the sting, in order that the file covers a big space.
This ensures that giant errors (wavy edges) are corrected.
Move the file from tip to deal with, in a path not fairly parallel to the file, to stop grooving.
Use lengthy, regular strokes and solely apply stress on the ahead, chopping stroke.

Usually you generally tend to file barely on an angle, versus completely horizontal.
Correct this error by altering submitting path by 90° and flipping the workpiece 180° within the vice.


Cross-filing often ends in a straight edge, however barely spherical in cross-section as a result of rocking movement of the file.
Draw-filing is used to make the sting flat in cross-section and perpendicular to the adjoining surfaces and to present it a wonderful floor end.

Use a wonderful (easy, single minimize) flat file.

Grasp the file at every finish.
This means you possibly can maintain the file regular
Place the file perpendicular on the sting.
Push and draw the file from one finish of the workpiece to the opposite.

With this method, watch out to not take away extra materials in the midst of the workpiece than on the perimeters.
Also often take away filings, as these have a tendency rating the floor once they get caught up within the file.

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